Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures of the hip, spine, and wrist. Men as well as women suffer from osteoporosis, a disease that can be prevented and treated.

Risk factors you cannot change:

  • Gender- Your chances of developing osteoporosis are greater if you are a woman. Women have less bone tissue and lose bone more rapidly than men because of the changes involved in menopause.
  • Age- the older you are, the greater your risk of osteoporosis. Your bones become less dense and weaker as you age.
  • Body size- Small, thin-boned women are at greater risk.
  • Ethnicity- Caucasian and Asian women are at higher risk. African-American and Latino women have a lower, but significant risk.
  • Family history- Susceptibility to fracture may be, in part, hereditary. People whose parents have a history of fractures also seem to have reduced bone mass and may be at risk for fractures.

Risk factors you can change:

  • Sex hormones: abnormal absence of menstrual periods (amenorrhea), estrogen level (menopause), and low testosterone levels in men
  • Anorexia
  • A lifetime diet low in calcium and vitamin D.
  • Use of certain medications, such as glucocorticoids or some anticonvulsant
  • An inactive lifestyle or extended bed rest
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Excessive use of alcohol

Prevention: Calcium, vitamin D, exercise, smoking& alcohol cessation

Diagnosis: Bone mineral density of spine, wrist, or hip.

Treatment: Nutrition, exercise, theupeutic medications, estrogen, calcitonin, alendronate, raloxifene, and risedronate

Fall Prevention: Keep rooms free of clutter, especially on floors, reevaluate any medications interfere with gait or balance.