Contraception

Contraception

Oral Contraception Progestin- inhibit ovulation and thickens cervical mucus Estrogen- maintains endometrium and prevents unscheduled bleeding and inhibits follicular development. Fixed combined dosaging- estrogen and progestin 3 weeks Combination phasic (biaphasic,...
Hysteroscopy

Hysteroscopy

Hysteroscopy- telescope that allows inspection of cervical canal and uterine cavity. Panoramic hysteroscopy is the most common method using a distension media compared to contact hysteroscopy. Ideal characteristics of a distending medium are: Allows clear...
Elective and Risk Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy

Elective and Risk Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy

Risk reducing implies ovaries are normal during the time of removal Elective is ovaries are removed at time of another indicated surgery   Menopause- 51 years, estradiol decreases by 90% because of follicular arrest and estrone becomes dominant estrogen. Estrone...
Breast Disease

Breast Disease

Anatomy of breasts: large modified sebaceous glands within superficial fascia of the anterior chest wall. Wt: 200-300g, 20% glandular tissue and 80% fat and connective tissue. Composed of 12-20 lobes arranged radial fashion from the nipple. Lymphatics: 75% regional...
Management Adnexal Masses

Management Adnexal Masses

Funtional or physiologix- follicles, hemorrhagic, corpus luteal Inflammatory- PID, endometrioma Other benign-paratubal cysts, hydrosalpinx, ectopic, ovarian torsion Benign neoplasms- Germ cell- mature teratoma Sex cord- fibroma Epithelial- serous or mucinous...
Vaginal Infections

Vaginal Infections

Vaginal infections, or vaginitis, describe the most common medical concerns women have in the area of their reproductive organs. Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vagina that creates discharge, odor, irritation, or itching. It is difficult to diagnose because...
Infectious Diseases Lower Genital Tract

Infectious Diseases Lower Genital Tract

Chlamydia is the number one bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States today. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can be caused by Chlamydia, is a leading cause of infertility, when left untreated. Symptoms: known as “silent epidemic”...
Premenstrual Syndrome

Premenstrual Syndrome

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by the presence of both physical and behavioral symptoms that occur repetitively in the second half of the menstrual cycle. It affects 75% of women with regular cycles and relieved with onset of menses. Physical symptoms:...
Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures of the hip, spine, and wrist. Men as well as women suffer from osteoporosis, a...